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2023.05.30 17:01 YourBrilliantLayer A Comprehensive Guide to Hyperpigmentation and How to Treat it

Hey-Oh! So, I see some form of this question multiple times per day in various skin and personal care subs: How do I deal with my hyperpigmentation? I also asked myself this question a few years ago. See, I'm prone to freckles and a little melasma and I set out to figure out a way to solve it with years of research, trial and error, testing, talking to dermatologists and professionals, and scouring every medical article I could get my hands on. I wanted to share my findings and research since this is a common concern, especially among people in their 30s. This started as a small post about my routine and ballooned into a massive book about hyperpigmentation. I hope it's helpful!
This is going to get long because I wanted to cover everything re:hyperpigmentation. But for your reading pleasure and ease, I have divided this post up so you can get whatever information you need:
Table of Contents
  1. Types of Hyperpigmentation
  2. What Causes Hyperpigmentation?
  3. How To Treat Hyperpigmentation Part 1: The Ingredients
  4. How to Treat Hyperpigmentation Part 2: The Routine and Recommendations
  5. Body Hyperpigmentation
  6. Nuclear Options
Let's get to it!

Types of Hyperpigmentation

Hyperpigmentation refers to excess melanin production in the skin, but it can actually take a couple different forms. Knowing the type of hyperpigmentation you're experiencing is key to understanding if and how it can be treated.
Freckles: Freckles are incredibly common, especially for people with lighter skin tones. They are small, brown or reddish-brown dots often clustered on the skin. They develop on the surface and are not raised bumps. Freckles can appear anywhere on the body but are common on the face. Freckles are permanent, but the color, contrast and severity can vary and be tempered.
Melasma: Melasma appears as dark patches or splotches around the face, though usually found on the forehead, upper lip, and high on the cheeks. Melasma forms deeper in the skin and appears more amorphous than freckles, moles, or age spots. It can create a “muddy” appearance and is very common among pregnant and postpartum women due to hormonal factors. But it can literally happen to anyone and anywhere on the body.
Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH): Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) occurs when damaged skin forms melanin during the healing process leaving dark spots. This is common after acne, injuries, eczema, burns, and other trauma to the skin. Exposure to UV rays during healing can make PIH worse. Post-inflammatory erythema (PIE) is similar, but leaves pink or red marks on the skin as a result of damage to the capillaries from injury or inflammation. Basically, when skin is compromised by injury, as part of the immune response cells will begin to generate melanin in an attempt to prevent further damage from UV exposure, so what will happen is the wound/legion/blemish will heal but the pigmented skin remains.
Age Spots: This is kind of a forgotten form of hyperpigmentation. Sun spots, also referred to as liver spots, and solar lentigines are large spots/patches of dark skin with distinct borders. They vary in color from light brown to almost black. They develop on the surface of the skin usually later in life, but reflect damage that often occurred from improper sun protection at a younger age. They can appear on the face, neck, chest, hands, and arms, usually on areas that had UV exposure. For many people, they can begin to appear in your 30s or 40s.

What Causes Hyperpigmentation?

There are a number of factors that can contribute to the formation of hyperpigmentation. Generally, it forms as the result of a combination of genetic and environmental influences. Everyone is unique, but these are some of the most common causes of hyperpigmentation and dark spots:
Genetics can play a role in the development of hyperpigmentation and dark spots in several ways:
Sun (UV) Exposure. In addition to genetic determination of melanin production, UV exposure is the leading environmental cause of hyperpigmentation and the formation of dark spots. Melanin is the pigment that provides color to our skin, hair, and eyes. It acts as a natural sunscreen (but don't treat it like natural sunscreen!!! This isn't the point of the exercise), absorbing UV radiation to protect the skin from damage.
When the skin is exposed to UV radiation, the melanocytes (cells that produce melanin) in the skin go into overdrive, producing more melanin to protect the skin from further damage. This increased melanin production can result in dark spots or areas of hyperpigmentation on the skin.
Hormones. In addition to genetic determination of melanin production, hormones and hormonal sensitivity is a leading internal cause of hyperpigmentation and the formation of dark spots.
One of the most well-known examples of hormonal hyperpigmentation is melasma, a condition characterized by dark, amorphous patches on the face, particularly on the cheeks, forehead, nose, and upper lip. Melasma is often associated with hormonal changes, such as those that occur during pregnancy, hormonal therapy, or birth control pill use. The hormonal changes can stimulate an increase in melanin production, resulting in dark spots or areas of hyperpigmentation. This can happen irrespective of UV exposure, though the sun does exacerbate it.
Hormones can also affect melanin production by altering the skin's metabolism and pigmentation pathways. For example, high levels of cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands during stress, can trigger an increase in melanin production, resulting in hyperpigmentation.
Inflammation, Injury & Trauma to the skin can result in hyperpigmentation by triggering an increase in melanin production. When the skin is inflamed or injured, it triggers a response from the body's immune system, which can stimulate an increase in melanin production as a protective measure.
For example, acne breakouts or other skin injuries can result in post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), which is characterized by dark spots or areas of discoloration on the skin. The dark spots are a result of an increase in melanin production in the affected area, which occurs in response to the inflammation or injury. In addition to acne and other skin injuries, other conditions that can result in PIH include eczema, psoriasis, and insect bites.
Medication Side Effects. Certain medications can cause hyperpigmentation on the skin. Medications that can cause hyperpigmentation include:
If using these medications is necessary for your livelihood, it is not recommended to stop their use without the recommendation of your doctor.

How To Treat Hyperpigmentation Part 1: The Ingredients

When looking for skin care products to treat and prevent hyperpigmentation and dark spots, it's important to look for ingredients that can help encourage cell turnover, curb melanin production, and block harmful UV rays. A lot of these things overlap with treatments for other conditions like acne and general anti-aging, but I've noted ones that specifically work on the mechanisms controlling melanin production. Now, this is an extensive list, but I know it doesn't have everything. I've included the ingredients that had the most compelling evidence and/or worked the best for me or people at my practice. But it's also not necessarily a shopping list. You don't have to have all of these things to treat hyperpigmentation, but I'll get to that in the routine portion. This is more to be used as a tool that can help you diversify your routine if you find one ingredient or another doesn't work for you. And it can help you determine if a product targets hyperpigmentation based on its ingredients. There's lot's of options. Some of the key ingredients to look for include:
Retinoids that increases cell turnover. Retinoids like tretinoin, adapalene, retinol et al, can help treat hyperpigmentation by promoting the turnover of skin cells and increasing cell growth, which can help fade dark spots and improve overall skin tone by replacing pigmented skin cells at the surface. While retinoids are extremely effective, they do have some caveats. First, they can be sensitizing to a lot of users, but this can be tempered by using different form functions, different application methods, or different concentrations. Second, because it's constantly turning over skin exposing delicate new skin cells to the elements, it can actually worsen hyperpigmentation if you're not vigilant about sun protection and avoidance. Tretinoin and other retinoids are firewalled behind a prescription in some countries and may be more difficult to obtain. But retinol/al is available in OTC forms.
SPF represents a class of many ingredients designed to protect the skin from UV rays and the damage that occurs from exposure. UV exposure is one of the biggest causes of fine hyperpigmentation and wrinkles so adequate protection is essential. I know I'm not winning any science awards for this declaration, but a lot of people who struggle with hyperpigmentation aren't adequately protecting themselves from the sun. But you also have to be kind of realistic. Even with perfect protection and avoidance, sometimes your hyperpigmentation will still flare. This happens during the summer for a lot of people and something even I grapple with. The key is to do your best and SPF actually works well with numerous other ingredients (like the ones listed below) to help solve that problem.
Arbutin is a Tyrosinase Inhibitor that blocks melanin production. Arbutin, or the synthesized version called alpha arbutin, is a favorite brightening ingredient because it's a slow-release derivative of hydroquinone that inhibits melanin production. This results in both healing and prevention of dark spots, especially when paired with topical acids. It metabolizes on the skin into hydroquinone which is super effective for hyperpigmentation while being a less controversial and hard-to-come-by ingredient than pure hydroquinone. More on hydroquinone in part 6.
Tranexamic acid is another Tyrosinase Inhibitor. This was first used in wound care and it was found to have profound effects on hyperpigmentation. Although it's an acid, it's not a chemical exfoliant, kinda like how hyaluronic acid is not a chemical exfoliant. The exact mechanism by which tranexamic acid works to reduce hyperpigmentation is not fully understood, but it is believed to work by reducing inflammation by blocking plasmin which contributes to melanin production when unchecked. It is particularly effective in treating melasma and one of my personal favorite ingredients.
Kojic Acid is another Tyrosinase Inhibitor. Kojic acid is a natural skin brightener that is derived from various fungi. Kojic acid can also help to exfoliate because it's a slight chemical exfoliant, which can remove dead skin cells that contribute to hyperpigmentation and improve overall appearance. But it does both things: block melanin production and turn skin cells over.
Azelaic Acid has a lot of things going for it that can help with hyperpigmentation. It's an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic that disrupts melanin production. Azelaic acid works by inhibiting the production of melanin in the skin like those other tyrosinase inhibitors. In addition, azelaic acid also has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, which help to improve the overall health and appearance of the skin by reducing melanin production as a result of injury or inflammation. It's also an anti-acne ingredient that can address the root cause of PIH by reducing acne on the skin. It's pretty awesome and available in OTC and prescription strengths.
Niacinamide is another one that directly and indirectly addresses hyperpigmentation. It's a skin soother that decreases inflammation and it naturally reduces sebum production which can curb acne which can curb PIH. It actually took me a little while to figure out that this was another solid hyperpigmentation treatment for these reasons because I used to look at it as being more of an acne treatment. Niacinamide is a form of vitamin B3 that works by inhibiting the transfer of pigment within the skin, which can help to reduce the appearance of dark spots and uneven skin tone. So while it doesn't block tyrosinase, it prevents transfer of pigmented skin cells to the surface.
Vitamin C aka L-ascorbic acid is an antioxidant that fights free radical damage. It treats and prevents hyperpigmentation in three ways. First, it reduces free radical damage from UV exposure which helps increase the effectiveness of SPF when worn together. Second, it is also a tyrosinase inhibitor that blocks melanin production. And finally, vitamin C encourages skin cell turnover. The key is finding a nice stable version of it.
Glycolic and Lactic Acid. Since this list is getting long I am going to group these together. Glycolic Acid is a water-soluble alpha hydroxy acid that penetrates into the pores to treat pigmentation by providing general exfoliation and resurfacing of the skin. The result is improvements in dark spots, texture and other signs of aging. Lactic Acid is also an AHA but with a slightly larger molecular size than glycolic acid so it doesn't penetrate as deep and acts more as a surface exfoliant. As a result it provides more gentle exfoliation to buff away surface pigmentation with an added benefit of acting as a humectant to seal moisture into the skin.
Licorice Extract is a plant extract that inhibits melanin production. Licorice root extract contains a compound called glabridin, which has been shown to have skin brightening effects as, you guessed it, a tyrosinase inhibitor. In addition, licorice root extract also has anti-inflammatory properties, which can help to reduce redness and inflammation associated with hyperpigmentation. I'm seeing more and more of this pop up in skin care.
Soy Proteins are another plant extract that inhibits melanin production. They contain compounds known as isoflavones, which have been shown to help reduce the amount of melanin produced by melanocytes in the skin. Additionally, soy proteins have antioxidant properties that can help to protect the skin from damage caused by free radicals, which can contribute to hyperpigmentation.

How To Treat Hyperpigmentation Part 2: The Routine and Recommendations

This is adapted from numerous comments, posts and DMs I've written on the topic and also comprises a large portion of my own personal routine and routines we recommend to patients. This is a generalist routine meaning it targets all the forms of hyperpigmentation I've mentioned; freckles, melasma, PIH, and age spots though it can be tweaked to address these individually more specifically. This is really my jumping off point for people to get a good idea of what they can achieve as a baseline with OTC ingredients before fine tuning or enlisting the help of a dermatologist. For a lot of people, this is enough to fully resolve, but even if it gets you part of the way there, this should give you a good idea of reactivity.
A few caveats:
Alright, let's get to it!
AM routine -- The Goal: Heal, Protect, and Prevent. In order of application following a lukewarm water rinse:
The combo of C+AZ+AA+SPF is an absolute powerhouse for healing existing hyperpigmentation and preventing new hyperpigmentation from forming. It makes your SPF more effective, it inhibits the production of melanin from UV exposure (not your natural melanin production though), and it speeds cell turnover with dual antioxidant action and gentle chemical exfoliation. The result is brighter skin in a few months of consistent use.
For Azelaic Acid, this is the ingredient for serious treatment. It's considered one of the most effective ways to reverse melasma aka serious hyperpigmentation short of hydroquinone -- which is both controversial and hard to get. It brings a little bit of exfoliation to the table in addition to inhibiting UV melanin production, but it also has a slight antiseptic property which can help with acne. Paula's choice Azelaic Acid Booster is the only one I've really tried after sampling the Ordinary's in-store and not liking the texture. I get about 6 months out of a tube and a little bit goes a long way.
For Alpha Arbutin, the Ordinary's formulation is pretty solid. I prefer the Ordinary's AA 2% + HA as opposed to their AA 2% + Ascorbic Acid 8% as I don't believe the quality and stability of their Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) is great. That's why I opt for a separate Vitamin C serum step. But the AA + HA also has a little bit of lactic acid in it which provides some gentle exfoliation and encourages AA deeper into the skin where it's more effective. Lactic acid is mild enough that it's safe for use in a morning routine, but you still want to protect with SPF. There are a couple AA products floating around but I think TO's product is probably the best, most straightforward one. Alpha Arbutin metabolizes into hydroquinone on the skin so is basically one of the best OTC pigment correctors you can get.
For Vitamin C, the gold standard really is Skinceuticals CE Ferulic. This is stupid expensive though so I’m going to suggest Timeless Vitamin C. I like that it comes in an airless pump that prevents oxidation over time. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that increases the rate of skin cell turnover bringing forward new, skin cells while simultaneously improving the effects of SPF. It's a great foundation for a fix.
These ingredients can be layered on one right after the other then topped with your moisturizer (I like a basic one like cetaphil daily lotion), then topped with your SPF. The SPF I would recommend is Canmake UV mermaid gel in clear as this will not leave a white cast on your skin and it’s generally a very elegant SPF. It's SPF 50 which means it gives really good protection, but there are numerous SPFs you can try. I personally like anything from La Roche Posay, any Neutrogena SPF that's not formulated with ethylhexylglycerin, Supergoop Unseen Sunscreen, Biore Aqua Rich (another Japanese brand), Trader Joe's SPF if you can get your hands on it, and EltaMD.
Of all the products I’ve tried that could act as a stand-in for vitamin c, azelaic acid, and alpha arbutin, there’s one Japanese serum from Hada Labo called “whitening lotion” which has had the biggest impact on my hyperpigmentation in a single product of anything I’ve tried. This might be a little too effective though, I actually find that it washed me out within the first 2 weeks of twice daily use, so now I only use it in the morning. And I’m not a fan of the translation… which is a direct but mistranslation. It’s not a bleaching lotion, it also relies on a form of vitamin C and tranexamic acid to brighten skin. But it's a really interesting to try if you wanted a simplified morning routine in which case I would apply this, then your moisturizer, then your SPF.
PM routine -- The Goal: Renew and Reveal. In order of application:
To cleanse, I have a really basic recommendation that will remove your SPF, makeup, and any grime/sebum from your day. Start with Cetaphil gentle cleanser. This is a gentle, hydrating cleanser that will break up your SPF really effectively. Massage in and rinse. Then apply a foaming cleanser, I recommend Cetaphil daily cleanser which foams. This will sweep away anything that’s left and give you a good foundation for the rest of your routine. While this doesn't directly help hyperpigmentation specifically, it's a critical step especially for people who are acne>PIH prone. It also gives you a nice clean slate to apply the rest of your skincare. I've tried dozens of cleansers but always come back to these two as good basic options.
For your Buffer this is an important step that can be done prior to using a chemical exfoliant or retinoid: applying an occlusive that will block the active from more sensitive skin. I recommend buffering around your eyes and nostrils with La Roche Posay Cicaplast balm because it kind of doubles as a nice eye cream, but this can also be done with basic vaseline or aquaphor for a more budget-friendly option.
For Tranexamic Acid, my holy grail TXA product, La Roche Posay Glycolic B5 is actually a multipurpose serum that combines ingredients to treat hyperpigmentation with chemical exfoliants. It contains two hyperpigmentation heavy hitters -- Tranexamic acid and Kojic Acid which are great for melasma -- and two exfoliants -- Glycolic Acid and Lipo-Hydroxy Acid (LHA) which is like fancy salicylic acid -- so it both reveals new skin cells that are less prone to pigmenting from UV exposure while sloughing away your old skin cells. You can use this 2 or 3 nights per week. On off nights, just cleanse and moisturize.
For a Retinoid if you can get prescription tretinoin, this is going to be the best bet. Your doctor will advise you on the concentration. More on that in part 6. It will help speed up the rate of cell turnover bringing new, unpigmented skin cells to the surface faster. Some other OTC options include differin (which is rated more for acne but uses the same mechanism for cell turnover so it's also effective in this use case) and retinols. Now, I haven't tried every retinol on the market but I have two that I stand by: SkinCeuticals retinol and L'Oreal retinol serum. The SkinCeuticals is, in my opinion, the closest to RX tretinoin in terms of efficacy, but it's a little pricey. The L'Oreal also does a really good job and is a little more affordable. It's currently my go-to OTC on the days I'm not using my RX retinoid tazarotene. You can use this 2 or 3 nights per week. On off nights, just cleanse and moisturize.
** My recommendations for tranexamic acid and retinoids CANNOT be used in the same night. You'll nuke your skin. And for most people, both aren't necessary, you can get away with using one or the other. If I had a preference, I would say use the TXA serum instead of a retinoid, but if you can build up a tolerance to using them both without damaging your barrier, they work really well together. So, proceed with caution. If you want to use both, use them on alternate nights and give yourself a night or two without either to let your skin recover. For me personally, I do retinoids on Sundays, and Wednesdays, chemical exfoliants on Mondays and Thursdays, and I let my skin rest (cleanse, moisturize, squalene oil) on Tuesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays.
On top of whichever active you choose, apply your moisturizer. You can use the same one you use in your morning routine, the Cetaphil daily lotion as it’s nice and light. I also like La Roche Posay Toleraine double repair for a ceramide-based cream alternative if you want something richer. You do not want to "slug" over actives. This advice gets mixed in a lot. Slugging refers to applying an occlusive layer over your skincare such as vaseline, aquaphor, oils like squalene oil, or healing balms like La Roche Posay Cicaplast balm. While this can be done on hydration nights, it should not be done on nights when you're using chemical exfoliants or retinoids as this may make them too effective causing irritation and breakouts.

Body Hyperpigmentation

Ok, I need everyone to be a grownup for two seconds. These products and methods (both from the prior section and this section) should NOT be used on your genitals. First, you can cause serious irritation or infection by applying active skincare to your genitals. Second, it's really not going to do anything to change the pigmentation of the skin there. The skin on your genitals is different than your body and facial skin and it pigments in different ways for different reasons so it's not going to respond to topicals the same way the rest of your body does. Don't even try it.
To be perfectly clear, these are the areas you should not be applying skincare: labia majora, labia minora, vaginal entrance or vagina, clitoral hood, perineum, anus, intergluteal cleft aka inside your butt crack, penis, or scrotum. And I say this as someone who chaffed the precipice of her "intergluteal cleft" in an unfortunate crunches-in-the-wrong-gym-shorts accident leaving me with some deeply incriminating hyperpigmentation and earning me the nickname "skid mark" from my ever loving boyfriend. It faded after a year but you can still send prayers.
These are areas you can apply skincare but do so with absolute caution and at your own risk: bikini line, mons pubis, inner thigh up to the groin fold, butt cheeks.
Ok, now that we've got the disclaimers out of the way, let's move forward. Hyperpigmentation can also occur on body skin for the same reason it appears on the face, but it can also be triggered by friction. And because body skin is different from facial skin, it requires a slightly different approach. This is my recommendation for both hyperpigmentation and KP (Keratosis pilaris) because they rely on the same mechanism for treatment: chemical exfoliation.
In the case of body hyperpigmentation, I recommend a two prong approach: a body wash in the shower and a topical treatment to be used after. Oh, and SPF again if there are areas that are exposed to the sun, and I have a holy grail SPF recommendation for this.
Now you may have noticed in my facial skin recommendation that I did not mention CeraVe as a treatment brand. I have posted numerous takedowns of CeraVe on other threads so I won't rehash them here suffice it to say that it's no longer a brand I can in good faith recommend since it's acquisition by L'Oreal. This is often the brand that's considered when treating KP on the body, but I don't believe their formulations and ingredient quality works for everyone.
For the body wash, I recommend Neutrogena body clear with Salicylic acid. This is an exfoliating body wash that will help clear away dead skin cells on the surface allowing new ones to come through. To be effective, you want it to sit on your skin for a little while. I recommend lathering it up and applying it after turning off your shower faucet and letting it sit for 2 or 3 minutes. This is when I like to knock out shower emails. Then rinse away.
On towel dried skin after your shower, apply AmLactin Bumps Be Gone. Again, this is formulated for KP but the reason I like it is because it contains lactic acid which will also give the assist on brightening hyperpigmented body skin. The wash and this should be effective, but you might also want to mix in a few drops of the alpha arbutin serum I recommended for your facial routine, maybe three drops per application area (each leg, each arm, chest, etc). I generally don't encourage facial products on the body because it's not an economical use for them, and also because body skin is a little more resilient and doesn't need skincare that's formulated for more sensitive facial skin. The AA serum from the Ordinary is very affordable however and is a good hyperpigmentation generalist.
Another one that I mentioned in the facial hyperpigmentation portion that can work well on the body is the Hada Labo whitening lotion. Again, this is formulated around tranexamic acid which is very effective for hyperpigmentation and a little bit if this stuff goes a long way. I buy it in bulk from Japanese Importers though it's also available on Amazon for a slightly higher price. If you find yourself in Asia, stock up on it. I use this specifically for fading tan lines that happen (even with diligent/neurotic SPF use) around my fitness watch and the straps of my workout tops that I run in.
You also want to wear SPF on areas that are exposed to the sun to prevent pigmentation from occurring. The one I absolutely love that’s not your 90’s banana boat is Aveeno Protect + Hydrate lotion with SPF 60. This is a great SPF for a lot of reasons: it finishes like a lotion instead of a sunscreen, it dries down totally clear, and it has a pleasant, slight sweet scent. On a scale of 1-10 with 1 being bare skin, 10 being banana boat slathered on by your mom in 1997, and regular body lotion being a 2, I give Aveeno Protect + Hydrate a 2.5 in terms of texture and feel-finish. I use it as my daily lotion on my neck, arms, shoulders, and chest. If you're more active you might need a heavier hitter here like a sport sunscreen.

Nuclear Options

In general, I recommend trying OTC topical solutions for any skin concern before heading down the in-office procedure route. Part of this is because you can usually put a good dent in what you're struggling with by using OTC topicals, making in-office procedures and RX treatments easier and more effective. Part of it is so you have a good maintenance routine in place to use after the fact to preserve the results of your in-office procedure which can sometimes be costly. Lastly, while some procedures can solve the immediate problem completely, topical skincare can be really effective at treating other adjacent conditions like redness, acne, and fine lines.
Side note: I haven't listed every possible compounded medication because there are a lot, and many compounded meds are formulated to tackle multiple issues like acne and hyperpigmentation. I also tend to favor single note skin care (aka, products with very few ingredients) as this allows you to combine or remove certain actives and gives you a better sense of reactivity.
For tougher-to-treat hyperpigmentation such as melasma, if your topical routine doesn't totally clear the problem in 6 to 8 months, a visit to the dermatologist might be helpful. Here are the heavier-hitting procedures and topicals that can go the extra mile after you've exhausted other options.
Medical Grade Peels: Medical grade chemical peels can be done by dermatologists. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or phenol peels may be done for cases of severe hyperpigmentation, but high concentration BHA or AHA peels are also commonly used. I do these twice a year. Because of the strength of the acids used, these must be done by a medical professional with careful followup.
***IPL Therapy and Laser Therapy may not work for everyone and in some cases may exacerbate hyperpigmentation so you really want to work with dermatologists with a lot of experience in treating cases similar to yours to determine if these interventions are appropriate for you.
IPL Treatment: Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) therapy can treat hyperpigmentation by targeting the melanin in the skin with a broad spectrum of light wavelengths, heating and breaking the melanin down. IPL is particularly effective for treating sun damage and age spots, as well as other forms of hyperpigmentation. The treatment is relatively non-invasive, with minimal downtime, making it a popular option. This is also a great treatment for the redness associated with enlarged blood vessels (often confused for broken capillaries) on the surface of the skin which can also appear alongside hyperpigmentation. There isn't any clinical evidence to support at-home IPL devices being effective in the same way. That doesn't mean it's not possible, it's just not studied enough to be certain. Most at-home IPL devices do not operate in effective wavelengths the way professional grade ones do.
Laser Therapy: Fractional and CO2 lasers can be used to treat a range of hyperpigmentation issues, including sun damage, age spots, and melasma. The treatment works by removing the top layers of skin, which contain the excess pigmentation, revealing fresh, healthy skin cells underneath. The lasers also stimulate the production of collagen, which helps to improve skin texture and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.
Hydroquinone: This isn't an in-office procedure like the aforementioned treatments, but it is firewalled behind a prescription meaning you can only access hydroquinone in effective concentrations by working with a doctor. This is a somewhat new development at least in the US following some covid-era rejiggering of prescription clearances. HDQ is controversial because it's a skin bleaching agent which has some cultural implications in places where light skin is favored over natural pigmentation. HDQ technically works the same way other OTC tyrosinase inhibitors do (in fact arbutin actually metabolizes into HDQ when applied to the skin), pure HDQ happens to be the most powerful version of them. It lightens any skin it touches, not just hyperpigmented skin in higher concentrations which can make it tough to use. This effect isn't as profound in the other tyrosinase inhibitors I mentioned making them much easier to use over HDQ which, in high concentrations, must be dotted on the skin in only hyperpigmented areas. So HDQ is really reserved for intervention in extreme or OTC treatment-resistance cases.
Tretinoin and Prescription Retinoids: This is going to be dependent on what part of the world you're in, but in a lot of countries, tretinoin and its counterparts like tazarotene are only available through prescription. I mentioned retinoids in the routine so if you're able to get your hands on a prescription from a doctor, it may be more effective than OTC retinols. Most doctors will prescribe a retinoid over hydroquinone, so this is usually easier to procure and can be quite effective on its own as a hyperpigmentation treatment. OTC differin is the only retinoid available over-the-counter (in the US) which can also be used for hyperpigmentation.
Prescription Azelaic Acid: This is another one that's available in lower concentrations over-the-counter (which can still be quite effective) but there are prescription strength grades of azelaic acid. This is usually reserved for rosacea treatment as it tends to target redness and flushing, or as an acne treatment because of its antiseptic properties, but it can also be an effective hyperpigmentation treatment for its tyrosinase-inhibiting ability.
If you made it this far, congratulations! I hope this information is helpful. While it is extensive and based on massive amount of research, experience, experimentation and work with professionals, it may not be perfect and it may not be suitable for everyone. Feel free to offer any constructive criticism or ask any questions in comments. I am always open to expanding my understanding.
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2023.05.30 17:01 Substance_number_6 Rewatching Season 2 : Episode 4

Ok, i guess I won't make some new friends with this one 😄. I know most of you loves this episode because Simon and Wille finally kiss each other this season but I don't really. But I'll get back to it later, let's start with the beginning.
Vincent is doing exactly what August did, which obviously refer to the beginning of 1x02. They really have to be careful with this kind of scenes because the difference between tribute to the last season and laziness is sometimes very small
– The boys praise Wille's straightness... I wasn't a big fan of this scene the first time. Now, i get it a little bit more, i get Simon reaction : he is not so much hurt by what Wille did than by the fact the school praises his heterosexuality while he was a pariah for having sex with another boy. I still think Simon's reaction is a little bit too much, i think watching him suffering in silence would have worked better (right now, i'm thinking about a scene from Skam, remember the end of 3x02, when Isak spend a very good time with Even m and suddenly his friends and girlfriend come up : Isak reaction was very realistic and what Tarjei did as an actor was very difficult, showing he is hurt but in the same time not showing it, because the character doesn't want to show how much painful it is. Everything was passing through a very subtle balance of expressions, through the eyes, and there was impressive. So I think this kind of acting would have worked better here). But the scene is interesting because it talks about the pressure of the society. And Wille even joins the celebration at the end
– ... And Simon finds comfort where he can, with Marcus, who keeps being a stand-in
– For once, it's Simon who tries to force Marcus to go to the ball with him. Just to hurt Wille. But Marcus isn't totally dumb and gets clearly Simon's intentions. In the last episode, we wondered if Marcus kissed Simon on purpose, knowing Wille was here. Here, if he really wanted to be shown with Simon, he has the perfect occasion. But he refuses. So I still thinks that it proves Marcus isn't totally evil
Simon is angry at Wille and take it out on him during the dodgeball game. A kind of revenge of the hockey scene. I'm really not a fan of this pettiness. Some people justified this kind of behavior by saying that they are teenagers, they are children and so this is a normal behavior. Ok, but this is a fiction. It may be realistic (and yet, we can discuss about that, i don't totally agree) but it's still a fiction. We love fiction because as much as it looks like real life, it's not totally the same. We come to find there what we don't find IRL. Love stories in fiction don't exactly look like real love stories, they are much more interesting, more passionate, there is much more drama... You want to struggle for the characters, not find them pathetic
– Not a big fan either of the discussion in the locker room, it is much more literal, much more explicit than in the first season. Simon blames Wille for sleeping with Felice and Wille blames Simon for his relationship with Marcus : but Wille and Simon aren't together (anymore) so it's pretty much non sense. No, really, this scene could have been as powerful as for example when Wille ask Simon if he brought drugs during the party in the 1x05, or when they make it up at the end of season 1 but it's just a poor uninteresting scene, it looks like a vulgar soap sometimes
Wille is shit at excuses. He doesn't really apologize to Felice and talks only about Simon, that's very impolite. And his proposition to Felice to go to the ball together is totally misplaced. I don't understand what's going on his mind at this moment, does he really thinks it is a good idea, really?
Vincent is almost worse than August with his friends
– Again, Nils gives Wille a third choice : living his homosexuality secretly and pretend he is straight publicly. That is pretty much what Wille suggested to Simon at the end of season 1. He even confess than he thinks August and Vincent know he is gay but don't ask (and don't tell) about it : great honours are great burdens
– I don't really see the point of the storyline with Frederika and Stella and their ambiguous relationship. I can understand the writers want to give some space for the secondary characters (other than the two main characters) but there is already not enough place for the main storyline and i have to admit I don't really care about them
– I'm not a big fan of August/Sara relationship, I really feel like it doesn't bring anything interesting to the show. Maybe for Sara, but I can't believe just for one second to their relationship. Alone, their couple has no significant value. It's just a little bit interesting because it is linked to Wilmon. But really, especially in this episode, i really feel like their scenes are totally boring (just hold on, we'll talk about that more deeply right after)
– I said it before but I'm not a fan either of August being a replacement for Wille. I think August is useless this season, he has absolutely no purpose. He was a main character in season 1, he was the nemesis, and i think the writers tried to keep him that way this season, but it is really too artificial. They try to recreate the same kind of tension but it doesn't work. Even his relationship with Sara feels the same way. Maybe a more interesting idea would have been some kind of redemption. However, August isn't really different from the first season, he wasn't just a dickhead, he had always been somehow jealous of Wille but that's the problem, he didn't really evolved and the show tells nothing more about him this season. The show really don't seems to know what to do with him.
Wille is crying in front of the mirror because when he is putting on some make up because suddenly, he becomes what he doesn't want to be somehow, and that means giving up on Simon. I get the metaphor but I think it's not very subtle
– I still think Marcus decided to go to the ball with Simon just to please him. You can see that is really not his thing, he is very uncomfortable in a suit... Honestly, there was probably some easier way to get Simon to sleep at his house. And Simon is very happy... until Marcus asks him about the fishes: suddenly his enthusiasm is broken. It reminds him the day Wille asked him the same question. And it reminds him how he still care for him
– Poor Alexander : he thinks he can beat August at his game. But August eminds him who is the boss... and get back his true nature
Simon uses Marcus to make Wille jealous, which leads to an awkward meeting where everyone is weird and embarrassed. But the plan doesn't work as expected: finally Wille gives up... Shit, Simon is in trouble and now he needs to think about something else to repair the damages
August has a really weird behavior when Sara doesn't do what he wants : he's panicking and looses all his confidence. Sara didn't do much, she just told him she couldn't come to see him and go to the ball with him because she doesn't want to betray Felice. I understand August is supposed to be really in love with Sara but the scene seems almost absurd
Marcus thinks Simon is nervous about his singing. I feel almost sad for him and for his naivety. Does he really believe Simon's excuse when he leaves?
– Ok, here we come, the kiss scene. As I said at the beginning of this review, i not gonna make any new friends : i don't really like this scene. Wells it's not that i don't like the kiss between the two boys but I'm bored watching it. I tried again, many times but nothing changed : I don't feel anything. So I tried to understand why it didn't work for me. Because I can still watch the kiss scenes from season 1 and have the same strong feeling. First, I'm not a big fan of the idea of the ball. They needed an iconic place, an iconic event for the kiss to take place. Like in season 1 during the movie night, or on the football field, or when they wake up the morning after... But they failed to write a logical chain of events that lead to the kiss. I can see they tried but it feels a bit sudden to me. And i don't know... everything feels less natural compared to the first season, i don't feel the same chemistry. I have a theory (and I'm sure people gonna hate me for that) : the first season was a big surprise, they wrote it without thinking it would be such a success. Now, i wonder if they felt some kind of pressure. I really feel like a lot of Wilmon scenes this season are less natural, less genuine, i see the big writing tricks they used and so obviously, the magic doesn't work.
Marcus can't be that dumb when he sees Wille get out from behind the tree, just after Simon. Or he lies to himself
– While singing, Simonlooks at Marcus and then at Wille and then put his head down and look at the floor : he is really conscious than what he did wasn't really fair toward Marcus
submitted by Substance_number_6 to YoungRoyals [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:01 YouRolltheDice If Logan was still alive, how will he had played this out?

Lot’s of events leading to Tom being appointed as CEO and Waystar selling to Gojo was decided by a lot of freehand decisions from the siblings
1.) Mattson, wanting to buy ATN, bloating the price - eventhough Rome and Kendall reneged, Shiv played a role here being the inside man
2.) Living+ - This is just Kendall going hard on superficial figures to bump up Stock price (eventually this plot did not even materialize)
2.) Election - Betting on Mencken that they will get leverage on blocking the deal through regulations, only to get fucked in the end. Mattson also realized that he does not need Shiv’s political connection
There’s a lot of decisions made by Siblings led them to losing the company altogether.
If Logan is still alive, how will this play out? One thing is for sure, he will not include ATN whatever it takes. He wouldve sensed Mattson’s up to something right away. Similar to season 2 when he’s negotiating to buy Pierce
submitted by YouRolltheDice to SuccessionTV [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:01 kktili How can I interact normally?

Hi, last week I was part of the European student exhange program and I participated as a host. This week taught me how bad I can be at human interaction. I was already having some mental problems following the week so I was not ready for 24/7 interaction with a stranger and should've honestly just not participated. I feel like I did a horrible job. I think I kind of shut down my emotions and tried upping the speaking which didn't work. I most likely came out as incredibly fake or weird. Or more like definitely because I could feel the guest's discomfort whenever we were by the two of us, but I didn't know how to act to calm down the tension so I just shut down my emotions more and became more distant. At the end of the week, I was on my phone at the corner of the room while we all (the guests and hosts) were having our last meetup. This was not because I felt socially anxious or tired and couldn't interact but because I didn't trust myself to interact with anyone because almost any time I opened my mouth I was met with a weirded out expression or discomfort. My emotions have been suppressed to terrifying degree now which, I think, kind of prevents me from reading social cues. During the week at first I didn't realize anything was wrong or was ignoring it but I definitely acted weird and still do. I stare for too long, don't give proper answers and create awkward pauses. I act like other people aren't around me. I don't acknowledge their struggles and don't feel empathy or at least don't act in an empathic way. I can't interact even with my family properly. I haven't seen any friends since last week but I'm terrified that I will mess up all my relationships when I get to interact with any.
I've already contacted our school psychologist because I fear I'm going to mess up all my social relationships if I don't get fixed whatever is going on with my brain. A good example of the extremely suppressed emotions is that I didn't feel almost anything while deciding to contact the psychologist. The previous time I felt extreme anxiety and afterwards I felt like a loser for having to ask help. I still kind of do, especially because I talked about it with my father before contacting, but it doesn't feel... right. Like, I should be feeling some super negative emotions right now but I aren't. Another example is this post. I would usually be feeling extremely anxious about posting this but I guess it's easy to suppress any emotions related to this because it's anonymous.
I'm not sure what kind of answers I'm looking but you can leave your thoughts if you want, thanks for reading.
submitted by kktili to Healthygamergg [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:00 morganwallin New Balance sent a counterfeit shoe, refuses refund

Hello, first time posting here, but I just had a very bad experience with New Balance's official European retail store and their customer support, and I just wanted to share that with more people.
In April I bought a pair of New Balance Fresh Foam X v4, and since I wanted them in the wider option, I ordered from their official retail store since I could not find the wide anywhere else.
When the shoe box arrived, I was very confused when I opened the box. The shoe box was correct, but inside it were a weird looking sneaker. I immediately contacted NB's support, and they asked me to provide picture of the box, shoe and the label on the tongue etc.
At first I was only slightly annoyed that I did not receive the new shoe I wanted since my previous ones had started falling a part, but this was when the real problems started. The shoes did not have a label on the tongue, which the support said that all New Balance shoes have. Also, the stuffing inside the shoes was weird, in one shoe it was paper, but in the other it was only a plastic bag. Also the quality of the shoe looked to be very odd.
So now I had to convince New Balance that I did in fact receive this specific shoe in the box and not the ones I had ordered. After several emails back and forth and a phone call, I eventually got the message that, OK, we sent the wrong shoe, return it to us and we will refund the money you paid (180 EUR) in the next 5-10 business days.
Time goes on, without me receiving any money in the bank. I try emailing the support rep that have helped me, but I get no answer back. Eventually growing tired, I call them up once more, only to find out they have blacklisted me for sending back a fake shoe, also they want to point out to me, New Balance could have impossibly have sent out the wrong shoe from their warehouse!
And of course I understand them, had I not been very open from the start that it was the wrong shoe, and that's what they accepted when they told me to send them back. I once again try to explain this to the rep on the phone, she claims she will escalate it internally and that she will send me an email confirming that we have spoken on the phone. Few hours passes by, but no email arrives.
I decide to call them once more, give the name of the person I spoke to a few hours earlier, and once more tries to explain my situation. Then they say that they can only see that I have returned the wrong shoe and that they are sorry they can not help me. I ask if there is any mention of my previous call that they would escalate internally, which there is not. So they are not even being up front with the actions they are claiming to do.
So at this point, I have given up hope that they would do the right thing. Of course I understand that they are afraid of me trying to scam them, but at this point, that is the exact thing that they have subjected me to. With this, I only want to share the experience, and hope that this is a very isolated event. I also sincerely hope that New Balance believes it to be worth the risk of losing a loyal customer (I have run in 5 different pairs of NB's over the last few years), as well as whatever tiny bad publicity this story might bring.
TLDR: Received a counterfeit shoe when ordering from New Balance, they refuse to refund the 180 EUR and in general are not providing a very good experience from customer support.
submitted by morganwallin to RunningShoeGeeks [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:00 AutoModerator New to Reddit? Come and talk to us!

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submitted by AutoModerator to NewToReddit [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:00 tabbby_cat Flourished at hospital pharmacy

Did anyone feel like they became a better tech after switching from retail to hospital? I've been at retail for 5 months, no tech experience before that, and while I'm getting better, I just don't feel like retail is for me. I want to switch to hospital but I don't know if I'll be good enough. Advice or suggestions, thoughts, etc appreciated.
submitted by tabbby_cat to PharmacyTechnician [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:00 Strict_Compote_4479 What does this mean?

Okay so my bf of 3 1/2 years broke up with me in a very weird way, im not sure maybe im just looking into it to deep but i need to know what he even wanted to do. let’s start at the beginning:
Friday, May 19: he came over as usual, but then started accusing me of talking bad about him to a lot of people when i told him i never did (i’ve never talked bad about him ever we talk bad about people a lot and he was my best friend so i would’ve never done that to him) he believed other people over me, but then i kicked him out and then i confronted the people he said told him that i’ve been talking bad and asked them if it was true, they said no and one even went to his house and yelled at him, he then called me a bunch of times i didn’t pick up a lot of them but then i finally did and then he broke up with me on the phone but asked to meet in person, at first i said no then finally agreed then changed my mind again to which he said “are you sure? it would be better” then we met in person and talked about it, he said he still loved me, and a lot of uncertain things. he still wanted to be friends, at one point he muttered to himself “maybe this is a mistake” and then after he asked to walk me home to which i said no.
i called him later that night and it wasn’t good he didn’t wanna hear me crying about it, he never blocked me on anything and he picked up my call. he then hung up when i started to cry.
saturday May 20th: didnt talk to him but found out he spent the saturday-sunday night at a friends house.
sunday May 21st: called him at 10 found out he spent the night at another friends house that night. he said we could call the next day.
Monday May 22nd: He didn’t tell anybody yet, only the two friends he spent those nights with. he told me it isn’t over forever, and etc.
Tuesday May 23: we called again same old he picks up the phone like nothing has changed yet when i start to cry he hangs up. i told him i needed to block him on everything until i could get over him so we could be friends like he wanted, called him after that text to make sure it sent, he was obviously crying on the other end.
Wednesday May 24th: he still hasn’t told anybody. i told a few people and they told me it sounds like he found someone else, to which i went to his house to grab my letters because if he did find someone else he doesn’t deserve those. Said some things called him some names.
Thursday May 25th: went to his place of work with a friend to make him jealous, it worked. called him later that night.
Friday May 26th: Called him he said he was very hurt with the things i called him said he wanted 3 months then he would see me again. got very hurt so i blocked his instagram(that was our only way of communicating)
Saturday: nothing
Sunday May 28th: i went on a walk purposely avoiding all the places he would be and so I went to a place I knew he wouldn’t be very close to my house and he was there and that’s not like him to be at that spot skateboarding, and when he saw me, or when I saw him I kind of turned around and was going to go home and then I was like why do that so then I was gonna walk by him and then when I was going to go do that. he had left really fast.
explain what the wants from me
submitted by Strict_Compote_4479 to BreakUps [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:00 anonasshole56435788 Update on my last post (things getting better slowly!)

I posted a few days ago about how I have to use a walker after my body was so malnourished and dehydrated I couldn’t fight off a superbug and almost died. I’m looking at dialysis eventually, BUT I have been doing well enough that that has been put off! My kidney function is moderately severe now, which is an improvement.
I’m getting stronger. I reconnected with NFamily (being cautious) who recognized somehow with therapy that they were narcissists and are working on it. It feels nice to have them back. My mom paid for my walker and a nice little carrying thing on, as well as a medical box.
I’m starting a bullet journal to write down events and stuff like “talked to x friend/family about x” “did x” so that my memory gets stronger.
Once I gain more and get healthier, physical therapy can help me get my strength back.
My congenital hip deformity got worse, and I developed spondylitis my doctors say is part connective tissue disorder, but also because I’ve been treating my body like sh!t.
Things are looking up, as sick as I was already and now will be forever from this too, I’m committed to getting better. No one wants me dead.
I didn’t know how many people would miss me until now.
Recovery is worth it. Having my legs contort and fall out from under me was terrifying.
I have doctor after doctor and am bored out of my mind, but rest is necessary.
Love to all of you. Nourish yourselves.
submitted by anonasshole56435788 to AnorexiaNervosa [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:00 KimNamjoonslefttitty Does this guy like me or see me as a rebound?

Me 18W and him 18M. I’ve known this guy for 2 days now and am getting subtle red flags. He reached out to me first and is a friend of my other friend from their school (we all go to a trade school in highschool that has neighboring highschools join so not everyone knows each other). He is super good looking, like literally has a six pack and very attractive that any girl would fall for him and let’s name him J. I am just a pretty average Girl, i dont look like all the other girls at school with this really bad tans and bleached blonde hair but I am tall and somewhat pretty and am not fat but not skinny, just have some stubborn weight around my tummy. Like I said I just felt odd like why would he like me when I am just so average and he’s so good looking?
Anyways, the day before yesterday was the first time we talked. He slid up on my insta note and we talked from there and he sounded very flirty and stuff. We talked about life and stuff and he brought up he just got out of a 8 month relationship with a girl last month and I was like uh oh and I’m his rebound? I think he’s attractive but I don’t have feelings quite yet and told him I would like to get to know him for 2-3 months before we put a label on anything. He asked if I can hangout and if I would like to go to his family Memorial Day cookout yesterday and I said I can go.
He came to pick me up and brought me flowers, they were sooo pretty and he said his sisters said that he should have and he does this for girls that are pretty and I was like oh… but still accepted them. We hung at his house 1pm-10pm, literally all day and just hung outside to talk about deeper topics and about ourselfs. He’s a body builder and I am an artist, we don’t really have similar topics of what we like but we get along well.
He mentioned his ex a lot of times and said she was toxic and that he hated her and I kinda was like oh… like I know it takes a while to get over an ex that long and I asked if he had other exs and his red flag was that he said. “Yeah I had many long term relationships“ so he never specified how many but it was just like hm..
When he welcomed me to his family his sisters were nice but they all seemed to take me as just another girl he invited over to date and get on with the next and it kinda hurt because I tried making a good impression. Even though it was the first time we met, I felt an attraction and he was so sweet like a boy out of an romance book.
Sweet things he did for me was brought me flowers, opened the car door for me to step in, cuddled me when watching a scary movie, play wrestled, and always looked at me to check on me to see how I was doing. Something a guy has never done for me not even in my 2 year ago relationship.
Maybe I’m just scared of what might happen but does he seem like I should be weary? I mean maybe I’m overreacting because he’s so nice and good looking and I don’t know why he’d go for me… what do you guys think? Please give some advice .

[Shortened] A guy I’ve known for two days now has said he thought I was cute and wanted to hangout with me after talking all day and invited me to his house for Memorial Day. We hung out at his house all day and he told me about his ex of 8 months and that he broke up with her a month ago and I’m just scared he sees me as a rebound. He’s very good looking and has a six pack where I’m kinda basic and normal and feel like it can’t be true a guy like him would like a girl like me right? He talks about his ex a lot and all negative things and is flirty with me. I don’t want to be a rebound but I can’t tell.. what do you think? (I suggest reading some above to get detailed answer)
submitted by KimNamjoonslefttitty to Debate [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:00 Makena_tattoos Ink stuck in pores?

Ink stuck in pores?
Please excuse the awful looking tattoo. I’ve been struggling with my fake skin, when I wipe the ink away it seems to get trapped in what I can only describe as the fake skins pores. And no matter what I do I can’t seem to get it out and it’s ruining all my work. Has this happened to any of you? And did you have any way of fixing it? The brand I’m using is ReelSkins
submitted by Makena_tattoos to TattooApprentice [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 16:59 rakthrowing Passed in 1st attempt at 125 questions, with <=1 month studies.

Hi folks,
I provisionally passed the CISSP at 125 questions. I have 10 years of experience in cyber security consulting focusing on VAPT and audits.
1. Resources used and study format:
On the day before the exam, and en-route to the exam I wound down to sunflower cheat sheet.
During the studies, I also took breaks whenever I felt overwhelmed, sleepy, or bored. I aimed to read 2 chapters a day for 3 weeks, ended up reading maybe 1 chapter a day for nearly 21 days.
2. About the exam:
submitted by rakthrowing to cissp [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 16:59 Ok-Compote1195 I (24F) am in a complicated “exclusive situationship” with my best friend (23M)

We have always been long distance. My partner (23M) and I (24F) met when I lived on the other half of the country for undergrad. He flew me to his college for a long weekend (paid for everything) and we hooked up. I didn’t think anything would come from it, so for the first 2 years of our friendship we didn’t really talk much apart from checking in on each other for birthdays and every once and awhile. We each were also in separate relationships. Since the pandemic we started to bond more and talked innocently on FaceTime every day for hours. He truly became just my best friend and vice versa. I had zero feelings for him. He was also still in his relationship with his ex.
This February, after I moved back home (closer to him but still a few states away) we started to take things a step further. He came to visit me while in my state for work and we hooked up on valentines day. Then a few weeks later for my birthday he went all out flying me to his place, luxury hotel suite, 5 star dinners, and expensive gifts. After that we started visiting each other more and going out on dates (like every week). I took that as a sign we were moving in the right direction. I even met his extended family (aunts, uncles, cousins, and grandparents). We also had what I thought was a solid conversation of us being together.
We then went on a trip (he paid for everything) with some of his friends and it went sour. One “friend” kept talking to me about how they used to hook up. When she asked if we were together he told her we were just “best friends”. It was well known that me and him were staying in the same hotel room. Another of his friends on the trip made it very clear that she wasn’t going to pretend to like me and let me know his other girl friends were talking shit about me. This was literally the second time I’ve ever interacted with her and I don’t even know the other girls that well to have an opinion on them yet. He didn’t defend me or say anything to his friends once.
He has mostly girl friends… which in itself isn’t an issue, but he goes out partying with them a lot. 4-5 times a week he’ll be out at the casino, bar hopping, brunch, and just in general getting trashed. I’m happy he has an active social life but because we’re long distance and I know they don’t like me it makes me feel a bit uneasy. I’m pretty social myself but I like to reel it in a bit when I start get serious with someone out of respect for them. Also since I moved back home, I’ve primarily been focused on working and saving up enough to move back out again. We’ve talked about living together once he finishes his grad program next year. I haven’t really seen him much since our trip. I only saw him for a few hours when he came to my state for work. When I brought up us making it a habit to see each other regularly (every other weekend at least) he said his schedule is busy so “we’ll see”. He makes time to party with his friends though. I also feel like we talked more on the phone when we were just friends. Now it’s getting harder to get a hold of him.
Our most recent “blow up” was over him staying over at one of his girl friends’ place after a drunken night out. I found out because I checked his location since I hadn’t heard from him and I innocently wanted to see if he made it home safe. He says he didn’t want to drive home drunk, which is understandable but he literally texted me at 2am saying he was dropping her off. I know he lives at most 10 minutes up the road from her. If he was coherent enough to drive almost an hour from the city to her place why was he not enough to drive the extra 10? If he was just “dropping her off” why did he go inside? Why didn’t he at least update me? The girl also just broke up with her boyfriend that same day. He says nothing happened and that their relationship isn’t like that and that they never messed around in the past but that’s exactly what he used to tell his ex about us. He never cheated on his ex (with me at least) but he lied and told her we had never messed around in the past.
I feel like I’m being played. It’s been 4 months and we’re not “official” though we’re supposed to be exclusive (what does that even mean?). I thought I knew who he was and that he knew me but I’m not even sure anymore. He means so much to me as support system. I want to salvage our friendship but idk if it’s even worth it. I keep wanting to cut him off. I could literally never talk to him again because our lives are so separate from each other (different industries, friend groups, states). I never thought “dating” (if i can even call it that) my best friend would be this complicated. I need advice.
submitted by Ok-Compote1195 to relationship_advice [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 16:59 KimNamjoonslefttitty Does this guy like me or see me as a rebound??

Me 18W and him 18M. I’ve known this guy for 2 days now and am getting subtle red flags. He reached out to me first and is a friend of my other friend from their school (we all go to a trade school in highschool that has neighboring highschools join so not everyone knows each other). He is super good looking, like literally has a six pack and very attractive that any girl would fall for him and let’s name him J. I am just a pretty average Girl, i dont look like all the other girls at school with this really bad tans and bleached blonde hair but I am tall and somewhat pretty and am not fat but not skinny, just have some stubborn weight around my tummy. Like I said I just felt odd like why would he like me when I am just so average and he’s so good looking?
Anyways, the day before yesterday was the first time we talked. He slid up on my insta note and we talked from there and he sounded very flirty and stuff. We talked about life and stuff and he brought up he just got out of a 8 month relationship with a girl last month and I was like uh oh and I’m his rebound? I think he’s attractive but I don’t have feelings quite yet and told him I would like to get to know him for 2-3 months before we put a label on anything. He asked if I can hangout and if I would like to go to his family Memorial Day cookout yesterday and I said I can go.
He came to pick me up and brought me flowers, they were sooo pretty and he said his sisters said that he should have and he does this for girls that are pretty and I was like oh… but still accepted them. We hung at his house 1pm-10pm, literally all day and just hung outside to talk about deeper topics and about ourselfs. He’s a body builder and I am an artist, we don’t really have similar topics of what we like but we get along well.
He mentioned his ex a lot of times and said she was toxic and that he hated her and I kinda was like oh… like I know it takes a while to get over an ex that long and I asked if he had other exs and his red flag was that he said. “Yeah I had many long term relationships“ so he never specified how many but it was just like hm..
When he welcomed me to his family his sisters were nice but they all seemed to take me as just another girl he invited over to date and get on with the next and it kinda hurt because I tried making a good impression. Even though it was the first time we met, I felt an attraction and he was so sweet like a boy out of an romance book.
Sweet things he did for me was brought me flowers, opened the car door for me to step in, cuddled me when watching a scary movie, play wrestled, and always looked at me to check on me to see how I was doing. Something a guy has never done for me not even in my 2 year ago relationship.
Maybe I’m just scared of what might happen but does he seem like I should be weary? I mean maybe I’m overreacting because he’s so nice and good looking and I don’t know why he’d go for me… what do you guys think? Please give some advice .

[Shortened] A guy I’ve known for two days now has said he thought I was cute and wanted to hangout with me after talking all day and invited me to his house for Memorial Day. We hung out at his house all day and he told me about his ex of 8 months and that he broke up with her a month ago and I’m just scared he sees me as a rebound. He’s very good looking and has a six pack where I’m kinda basic and normal and feel like it can’t be true a guy like him would like a girl like me right? He talks about his ex a lot and all negative things and is flirty with me. I don’t want to be a rebound but I can’t tell.. what do you think? (I suggest reading some above to get detailed answer)
submitted by KimNamjoonslefttitty to Advice [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 16:59 Dicer5 Costly Colours: The near extinct sister game to Crib

I fell in love with an old variant of Cribbage a few months back and want to share it with all of you. It's a nice shake up from crib where you have a smaller hand, no third hand, but additional scoring options. I've cleaned up the rules a bit for clarity, especially in the mogging phase.
Costly Colours
Costly Colours is a game, which like Cribbage seemed to have spawned off from their common ancestor of Noddy. While commonly played in the 1600's it did not seem to retain the popularity as Cribbage and was much less widely played after. Having more scoring categories then Cribbage as well as several other differences, it does, however, make for a fun game.
This game is played by two players using the standard 52 card deck with the following ranking of the cards (high to low); King, Queen, Jack, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, Ace. The numerical equivalents for the cards are as follows: King, Queen and Jack are worth 10 each, the numeric cards are worth their marked value and each Ace is worth 1 or 11 at the card holders option.
The normal method to determine the dealer is for both players to cut a card from the deck, with the player cutting the lowest card becoming the first dealer. The deal alternates between each player from hand to hand.
The Deal: The dealer then deals the cards face down and one at a time in an alternating fashion until each player has three cards. He then turns over the next card from the deck as an upcard. If this exposed card is any Jack (called "for his heels") or Two, the dealer earns four points immediately.
After the starter card is flipped, the players have the opportunity to Mog (swap one card face down with the other player). The order of the next actions is important. It goes as thus.
1. The Eldest (non-dealer) chooses if they want to mog. If they choose not to, Go to Step 2. If they choose to mog and the dealer agrees, they swap a card face down to each other, Go to Step 3. If the dealer refuses to mog, the Eldest pegs 1 point. Go to Step 4
2.If the Eldest doesn’t choose to mog, the dealer may choose to and makes their declaration. If the dealer chooses not to mog, Go to Step 4. If the dealer choose to mog and the Eldest refuses, peg 1 point for the dealer. If the Eldest accepts, Go to Step 3
3. After both players swap a card face down. If a player gave a jack or a Duece to the other player, the original owner of that card scores the points for that as if it was in their hand. (Jacks and 2s of the trump suit score 4 points, Jacks and 2s of the non trump suit score 2 points. That card later, cannot be scored in the new players hand. (note, it can still be used in other scoring combinations, but the new owner of the card cant get the 2 or 4 points for having a Jack or a 2 during the final scoring of the hand.) If the original owner of the Jack or Two forgets to peg points for giving these cards away. The new owner may score with them as usual in the Hand scoring phase. Go to step 4
4. Play begins
As in all other games of the Cribbage family, the primary goal of the game is to score points from card combinations in a player's hand or formed during play of the hand. The first player to reach 121 or more points is declared the winner of the game.
The Play
The play of the hand occurs before the players announce and total their scores for combinations from their hands. To begin, the non-dealer places any card of his choice face from his hand face up in front of himself announcing the cards rank. His opponent then plays a card from his own hand in front of himself, announcing the new total of the sum of the ranks of the cards played. When playing an Ace, a player may add 1 or 11 to the running score at his option.
If a player on his turn, cannot play a card that would keep the total at 31 or less, he must state Go. The opponent may then, if able, continue to play cards until they too are unable to play cards without exceeding 31. Once this player is unable to play additional cards, they score 1 for last or more for the Hitter (1 point per card summing to 31). If one or both players still retain cards, all played cards should then be set aside by the players, and a new sequence is begun starting from a total of 0.
For forming any of the applicable scoring combinations given in the chart, they score appropriately, as soon as the combination is made. In order to score for a sequence, the cards do not necessarily have to played in the exact numerical sequence, however no duplicate cards or intervening cards not of the specific sequence can be played (i.e. a player could score by playing the 9, with a 7 and then 8 being the previous cards played). For purposes of Sequences an Ace is considered low so may only be scored in an sequence also containing the Two and Three.
Scoring the Hand
After play of the hand, the players than gather all their own played cards for scoring their hands. They may then declare each applicable scoring combination (indicated in the chart) which consists of their original hand cards and the turned up start card. The non-dealer announces and scores first, followed by the dealer. A particular card can be used in scoring for multiple legal combinations, however, a player may not score for lesser combinations of the same type using the same card (i.e. a player may not count for four in suit and also for three in suit). This game is usually scored on a standard Cribbage board, with the first player to go twice around, scoring 121 points, declared the winner. NOTE: If you were given a Jack or Duece during the mogging phase and the original owner of the card pegged for it, you may not score them during this phase. They may still be used in other card combinations, but Not for simply having those cards.
Combination Description Scoring Value When Scored
Fifteen Combination of cards totalling exactly 15 1 per card in the combination During Play and in Hand
Twenty-Five Combination of cards totalling exactly 25 1 per card in the combination During Play and in Hand
Thirty-One Combination of cards totalling exactly 31 1 per card in the combination During Play and in Hand
Jack (for his nobs) or Two Holding a Jack or Deuce of same suit as the turned up card 4 In Hand Only
Jack or Deuce Holding any Jack or Deuce not of the same suit as turned up card 2 In Hand Only
Pair Two cards of same rank 2 During Play and in Hand
Prial Three cards of same rank 9 During Play and in Hand
Double Prial Four cards of same rank 18 During Play and in Hand
Sequence Three or more cards played in Sequence 1 per card in the Sequence In Play Only
Three in Suit Three cards of same suit 3 In Hand Only
Three in Colour Three cards of the same color but not suit 2 In Hand Only
Four in Colour, Two in Suit Four cards of same color, with two in each of two suits 4 In Hand Only
Four in Colour, Three in Suit Four cards of same color, with three in the same suit 5 In Hand Only
Costly Colours Four cards of the same suit 6 In Hand Only
submitted by Dicer5 to Cribbage [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 16:59 MauveIndigo Burnt-out with a Burn-ing sibling

Among my siblings, I was the highest achiever. It's not that they were dumb, I guess they just weren't as competitive.
In school, they breezed through with B's and some A's. I bulldozed through with straight A*. Outside school, they each had 1 or 2 trophies on their shelves. I had a whole trophy case dedicated to my achievements.
You get my point. My parents didn't even blink at the yearly parent-teacher meetings anymore as they knew the outcome already -- a clean sweep. That is, until the pandemic came.
Along with many others, I completely fell off my imaginary pedestal. Getting top ranks were off my to-do-list and now, passing was my only priority. This downspiral continued until now, where I hover in the middle-high ranks of a relatively small class.
But I guess I was alone in this. Because my eldest sibling was excelling. His ordinary, quiet demeanor peeled away to reveal this burning passion to succeed. And that he did. Not only had he risen to top ranks in multiple programme's, but he had been admitted to a pretty damn good college where he continues his streak with a scholarship.
Now that I've just finished my finals, this gnawing feeling of inferiority has been amplified. I know for a fact I didn't do as good as I could have done, but it was less of a laziness matter, and more of genuine confusion. How do I study...? All I knew to do was cramming 15 minutes before exams and acing it anyways.
But I couldn't do that this time, no, these were beyond my limits.
I'm not just venting here, I just wanted to say that I've accepted my past. I'll never be able to change those grades and although I'm ashamed, I will have many more opportunities to prove my worth.
So for those of you burnt out as I am, let's try harder next time. Let's not have any regrets going forward and burn once more.
submitted by MauveIndigo to motivation [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 16:59 NotThePornAccount1 Scam or not scam?

Scam or not scam?
I'm not sure if he is genuine or trying to steal my account.
submitted by NotThePornAccount1 to XboxSeriesX [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 16:59 Right-Proposal5066 How is 73 percent for 10th? Good, average or bad?

I was weak in maths so scored like 53 in it, and it brought my average to 73, this is what I got in boards, how will this affect my life ahead as someone who is taking commerce with entrepreneurship? And how would you perceive the result. I'm getting paranoid thinking how i did - my parents said i did fine and are satisfied...but my friend group got quite good so can't think up any idea about my marks...
submitted by Right-Proposal5066 to CBSE [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 16:58 Impressive-Silver158 GP says high Vit D is causing symptoms?

21 FTM (on testosterone HRT for 7.5 years), 5'4", ~128lbs, white. Located in the USA.
Duration of complaint: ~10 months, give or take. Details below.
Existing medical issues: Crohn's Disease (Severe, onset 2015; in remission), low bone density, cholinergic urticaria, vaginal atrophy, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (ablated/cured 09/2019).
Current medications:
I do not smoke, take recreational drugs, or drink alcohol.
Main complaint:
I started having some strange symptoms several months ago. The muscle aches and hair loss came first, both of which I wrote off. The sensitivity to cold and unusual menstrual bleeding were next, and these are what caught my attention. I thought they might've been caused by the minoxidil (they started right after I began taking it; I didn't start Finasteride for 3 more months), so I waited 4ish months to see if they'd go away. The bleeding did, but the sensitivity to cold didn't. During that 4 month period, I developed more symptoms (listed/detailed below).
Since it wasn't going away, I decided to contact my GP about it. She said it was unlikely that oral minoxidil caused my symptoms, and that it was more likely my thyroid. I had subclinical hypothyroidism back in May 2020, so she figured it had developed into clinical hypothyroidism and ordered a TSH with free T4 reflex test for me. This made sense to me, especially since my father, maternal grandmother, and maternal great aunt all have hypothyroidism.
My TSH test came back 04/04/23 within the normal range (2.68 uIU/mL). My symptoms had not gone away, so I thought maybe the biotin in my multivitamin had affected the test. My GP ordered another TSH test for 05/15/23, which I got along with lots of other bloodwork for my GI doctor. This TSH test also came back normal, at 2.71 uIU/mL. Here are the [results of all 6 TSH tests I've had to date](https://drive.proton.me/urls/108YE0EC9M#GyvMp1B8n8vc), for reference.
The other blood tests I had done were a CBC ([results, with reference ranges](https://drive.proton.me/urls/1S21SEEC78#563Rw88Bb9Ol)), basic metabolic panel ([results](https://drive.proton.me/urls/7CQTR3ZMMW#RPW1QVFYe44t)) ([results of the mentioned elevated A1C from 2020](https://drive.proton.me/urls/Y5H3DYHWVM#B1DHfQjpCHtI)), vitamin D 25 hydroxy, vitamin B12, creatinine/E-GFR, c-reactive protein, hepatic function panel, ferritin, folate, iron total, and transferrin. My vitamin D level was very high (114 ng/mL; [results](https://drive.proton.me/urls/E13V3RAX28#6PwBuZOG0kJs)) and my calcium near the high end of normal, but all my other labs were normal. I have noticed that my (naturally high) RBC count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels have been on a downward trend in the past few months, but am unsure if that matters/means anything ([result trends 2021-now](https://drive.proton.me/urls/QJFQC32CT0#cKRMYIrqM8Zl)).
After seeing my vitamin D level, my GP said that was likely what was causing my symptoms and advised me to stop taking my vitamin D supplement. My GP recommended retesting my vitamin D level in 6 weeks (around 06/28).
I have since stopped taking my supplement and am happy to repeat the test in 6 weeks. Since I stopped taking it, I have noticed two other symptoms that I was having (increased thirst and frequent urination) have gone away. However, I don't think a high vitamin D level explains all of my other symptoms? It seems to me like many of my symptoms match hypothyroidism, but my recent TSH tests have been within the normal range (though higher than my pre-2020 results).
So, I'm hoping to get some opinions as to what might be up with me. Is it likely that high vitamin D really has been causing my symptoms? Is it possible something affected my TSH results? Or is something else entirely causing my symptoms?
Sorry if I've given too much (or too little) info. I tried to be thorough without giving too much irrelevant info. I'm happy to provide any extra info desired, as long as I have it.
I'm including a full list below of the current unexplained symptoms I'm having:
submitted by Impressive-Silver158 to AskDocs [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 16:58 RedditsFan2020 How to deal with easily distracted downsyndrome young teenager in school?

My niece is 13 years old and attending a regular secondary school (just started grade 7th). We are lucky that she isn't a severe down syndrome case. Also both my sister and brother in-law have moved heaven and earth to make sure that my niece's development is as optimal as possible. They have done everything from supplements, exercises, brain stimulations, personal nanny/teacher, etc. Even though she could read at the same level as regular children her age, the rest of the intelligent skills (math, logics, etc) are severely behind. It was difficult trying to find a regular secondary school for her. All schools told us to send her to a special kid school which in our country is horrible. Luckily, we found one school that allowed her to attend classes with regular kids after seeing her reading skill.
The problem started because at new school, students need to change classroom for every subject. They have to walk from class A to class B. On route to the new class, my niece always gets distracted and often don't reach the next class. Her personal nanny (who goes to class and stays with her all day) has to run after her to get her to classes. This has happened every time when the class changes. In our country, that's about 6 - 8 times a day. The nanny is in her 50's. She admitted that she has a hard time trying to catch up with the 13 yo. Often times, my niece wouldn't listen to the nanny and refused to go to the next class. A number of time, my sister had to drive to school to bring her back home because of that.
We had this problem when she started the primary school as well, but at that time my sister discovered that giving my niece Omega3 DHA for children clam her down significantly. That trick has worked wonder until she graduated 6th grade. It's no longer working. Maybe she outgrew that? I wonder if there are other things to help calming her down and make her less distracted. So she could go to school normally like she did in the primary school. Any suggestions/thoughts are welcome. Thank you.
submitted by RedditsFan2020 to downsyndrome [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 16:58 beachbynoon Got gel nails done at the salon. Polish is lifting off five fingers after three days.

When I got my nails done on Friday, I felt that she rushed through and missed spots on the sides of my nails. She did fix it when I pointed it out, but now the gel is already lifting off five nails and it's only been three days! At this point, would you ask them to fix it or just go somewhere else?
For context, I've been getting gel for years at other salons and it always lasts me at least 3 weeks. Sometimes up to 5.
submitted by beachbynoon to Nails [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 16:58 tparadisi PS l आणि ll : काही rants

[ English Below ]

मी कादंबरी वाचली नाही. त्यामुळे पुढील टिपणे फक्त चित्रपटावरच अवलंबून आहेत. त्यामुळे मूळ कथेला मी कमी लेखू इच्छित नाही. चित्रपटातून समजलेल्या कथेपुरतेच मी मर्यादित लिहितो. हलक्यात घ्याव्यात.
१. सुंदर चोळ उठून चार पावलं तरी चालेल ही माफक अपेक्षा दुसऱ्या भागात पूर्ण होते. पहिल्या भागातल्या चिनी सुयांनी काम केलं हे पाहून मन भरून आले. २. हिंदी संवाद लिहिणाऱ्याला सलाम. कुंदवै दुसऱ्या भागात मधुरांतकाला 'चाचाश्री' अशी हाकारते तेव्हा कान तृप्त झाले. ३. परमसुंदरी नंदिनी उर्फ ऐश्वर्या राय पापणी लवताना एक्स्पोनेन्शियली जास्त वेळ का घेते हे गूढ शेवटपर्यंत उलगडत नाही. साधी मान जरी वळवायची तरी तिला पूर्ण अंग वळवावे लागते तेही अर्धातास, हे कसले सौंदर्य जडत्व म्हणायचे? दोन्ही भागांच्या एकूण प्लॉटचे वजन नंदिनीच्याच खांद्यावर आहे हे जाणवून देणे हा अभिनयाचा कळसच म्हणायला हवे. ४. उपपरमसुंदरी कुंदवै रोमान्स करतानासुद्धा चेहऱ्यावरचे मसल्स दोन मिलीमीटरदेखील हलवत नाही. तिच्या डोक्यातले ग्राफिक्स कार्ड अपग्रेड करायची सख्त गरज आहे. चोळांनी अजून ग्राफिक्स प्रोसेसिंगचा शोध न लावल्यामुळे हे राह्यलं असावं. ५. शेवटचा सीन पाहून स्टारवार्स भाग तीनच्या शेवटच्या भागाची आठवण झाली. वंदियदेवन आणि जार जार यांच्यात तसाही फारसा फरक नाही. ६. दोन्ही परमसुंदऱ्या कमी होत्या का काय म्हणून तिसरी एक परमसुंदरी माधुरी मध्येच दाखवली जाते. परंतु तिच्याऐवजी जपानी हलती बाहुली जरी दाखवली असती तरी खपून गेले असते. निदान तिने दोन तीन हलके मुरके तरी घेतले असते. परंतु ठीकच. तसाही मधुरांतकन इकडून तिकडे चालत जाण्याऐवजी काहीच करत नाही त्याला स्टॅटिक माधुरी शोभून दिसते. ७. प्लॉट तर साधाच आहे तरीही पात्रांची एकामागोमाग जंत्री लावल्याने, आणि प्रत्येकाची पूर्ण नाव घेण्याची सक्ती असल्याने माणसांनी टोपण नावे का शोधली असावीत याचा उलगडा होतो. आयला इथे टोपणनावही डबल बॅरल - पोन्नीयन सेल्वन. ८. नंदिनीची आई मुकी आहे हे सुंदरचोळ सोडून इतरांना कसे कळते बुद्ध जाणे. परंतु ती मुकी आणि आंधळीही असावी असं तिचं एकंदरीत वागणं आहे. त्यात ते विपुल पांढरेशुभ्र केस, धवल साडी सांभाळत डीप डाइव्ह मारणे, वरूनमोळी वर्मनाला तीनदा वाचवणे हे खायचे काम नाही. त्या अवतार सारखं हत्तीच्या शेपटाला ती तिचे विपुल केस जुळवून मन की बात स्टाईल सूचना देत असते असं दाखवलं तर पटलं असतं. ९. प्रेयसीला मुद्दाम भेटून तिच्या हाताने सूरी खुपसून घेणे हे टीनएजर मंडळीही करत नाहीत. भेटायचेच आहे तर भर उजेडात नदी काठी विहार वगैरे करत भेटावे. आदित्य करिकालना, कशाला अंधारात धडपडून मेलास? परमसुंदरीच्या चेहऱ्यावर सुरकुती दिसेल अशी भीती होती का तुला? का आयला, टीनएजमध्ये काळे-तपकिरी डोळे असलेली परमसुंदरी घाऱ्या डोळ्यांची कशी काय झाली हा आश्चर्याचा धक्का बसू नयेस म्हणून रात्री मेणबत्त्या विझवून भेटलास ? १०. स्कॅफोल्डिंगचा शोधही चोळांनी लावलाय. नुकताच अहिंसक बुद्धविहारातून बाहेर आलेला अरुणमौळी भर बाजारात, भर उत्सवात देखील एका माणसाला हत्तीकरवी सोंडेने भिरकावून खलास करतो तेव्हा पब्लिक - "क्या मारा, लमावो" असे करत चिल करते. आयला हे नागपट्टणमचं पब्लिक भलतंच चिल्ड होतं म्हणायचं. ११. चोळ एकंदरीतच - "आप जैसा पांड्या मेरी जिंदगी ले जाए तो बात बन जाए" - या एटीट्युडचे होते हे कळलं.

I have not read the novel. So the following comments depend on the movie only. So I don't want to belittle the original story. I write only about the story understood from the movie. Take it lightly.

  1. The second part fulfills the modest expectation of Sundar Chola standing up and walking at least four steps. It was truly heartening to witness the miraculous effect of those Chinese needles from the first part.
  2. I must offer my salute to the Hindi dialogue writer. My ears were thoroughly satisfied when Kundvai referred to Madhurantaka as 'Chachashree' in the second part.
  3. The movie fails to unveil the mystery of why the param sundari Nandini, also known as Aishwarya Rai, takes an exponentially long time to blink. Even a simple turn of her neck requires her to rotate her entire body for what seems like an eternity. What kind of beauty-inertia is this? Nevertheless, it's worth noting that Nandini's character shoulders the weight of the overall plot in both parts, that must be the "bearing".
  4. Vice param sundari Kundvai doesn't even move her facial muscles by a mere two millimeters during romantic scenes. It appears her facial graphics card is in dire need of an upgrade. Perhaps this deficiency is due to the Cholas' lack of knowledge in the field of graphics processing.
  5. The final scene brought back memories of the concluding episode of Star Wars Episode III. There is a striking resemblance between Vandiyadevan and Jar Jar.
  6. As if two param sundaris weren't enough, the movie introduces a third one in the form of Madhuri. However, even if they had replaced her with a Japanese moving doll, it wouldn't have made much difference. At least the doll would have made a few light movements. Nonetheless, Madhurantakan's character remains stagnant, merely wandering around while adorned with a static melody.
  7. While the movie plot itself is simple, the excessive emphasis on character names and their full identities elucidates why pseudonyms were invented. Shall I say Double Barrel - Ponniyan Selvan, abides by this tradition.
  8. It's quite perplexing that everyone else is aware of Nandini's mother being mute, except for Sundarchola. Yet, her overall demeanor suggests she could be both mute and blind. With her abundant white hair, gracefully diving into the deep water with the white sari, and saving Varunmoli Varmana multiple times, it's no small feat. It would have been perfection if she had attached her hair to the elephant's tail, just like the Avatar-styled pandorians.
  9. Even Indian teenagers don't go to the extreme of deliberately meeting their girlfriends in the dark and getting stabbed. If they wish to meet, a nice stroll along the river in broad daylight would suffice. Why, did Aditya Karikalana meet his untimely demise in the darkness? Was he afraid that Paramsundari's face would reveal a wrinkle? Or was he afraid to look into the green eyeballs which were once completely black when Nandini was a teenager?
  10. Astonishingly, it seems the Cholas were pioneers in the field of scaffolding as well. Arunmouli, who had recently embraced non-violence at the Buddhavihara, throws a man with the elephants trunk in the crowded open market, and public in the market is like, "Kya mara, LAMO."
  11. In general Chols had attitude like - "Aap jaisa Pandya meri zindagi le jaye to baat ban jaye"
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